Corresponding Author: Email: ah.haghighi@hsu.ac.ir, Tel: 05714004408
The Effect of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise on myoD Gene Expression in Slow and Fast Twitch Muscles of Wistar Male Rats

Mohammad Fathi1 – Reza Gharakhanlou2- Masoud
Soleimani3 – Hamid Rajabi4 – Raziyeh Rezaei5
1. Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Physical Education Department,
Humanities Faculty, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran,2. Associate
Professor of Exercise Physiology, Physical Education Department, Humanities
Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran,3. Associate Professor,
Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran,4. Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Karaj, Iran,5.
Ph.D. Student of Exercise Physiology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
(Received: 2013/12/10,Accepted: 2014/6/26)

Abstract
Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells that enter the cycle cell due to myotrauma. One of the activation and proliferation indicators of these cells is an increase in myoD gene expression. But there are contradictions in the response of this gene to resistance exercises in fast and slow fibers. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of resistance exercise on myoD gene expression in fast and slow twitch skeletal muscles in Wistar male rats. 15 rats were obtained from Pasteur Institute and housed under natural conditions (temperature, light/dark cycle, with free access to food and water). Then, the rats were randomly divided into two groups of resistance exercise (n=10) and control (n=5). The Resistance exercise group performed a session of resistance exercise; three and six hours after the exercise, the rats were anaesthetized and killed. Then, the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were removed and to determine myoD gene expression rate, the Real time RT-PCR method was used. Data were analyzed by t test. The results showed that resistance exercise increased myoD gene expression 2.36 times (not significantly) in EDL muscle and the soleus myoD gene expression did not change significantly. It can be concluded that myoD gene in fast-twitch muscle is affected by resistance exercise faster and more than slow-twitch muscle.

Keywords
extensor digitorum longus, myoD, resistance exercise, soleus.


Corresponding Author: E-mail: mogharnasi@ped.usb.ac.ir , Tel: 09153412696

The Effect of 12 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on Leptin Levels and Obesity Dependent Factors among Overweight Female Students
Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram 1 – Mehdi Mogharnasi2
1. MSc of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport
Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran,2. Associate Professor,
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of
Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
(Received: 2013/10/28,Accepted: 2013/12/15)

Abstract
Leptin is a hormone secreted from fat tissue and plays an important role in setting cell metabolism and energy balance. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of 12 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on leptin levels and obesity dependent factors among overweight female students. In this semi-experimental study, 24 students with BMI of 25-30 kg/m2 were selected purposefully and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (mean age 22.60 ± 0.97 years, weight 85.50 ± 2.37 kg, height 166.80 ± 2.82 cm) and control (mean age 23.20 ± 1.3 years, weight 82.90 ± 3.18 kg, height 168.20 ± 1.87 cm). Experimental group performed a high intensity training program for 12 weeks, 3 sessions a week with the intensity of 90 percent of maximum heart rate. Amounts of plasma leptin, weight, fat percentage, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated before and after the training. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and dependent and independent t tests at α≤0.05. Results showed that 12 weeks of high intensity interval running had a significant effect (P≤0.05) on the reduction of serum levels of plasma leptin, body weight, fat percentage, BMI and WHR in the experimental group compared with the control group. It seems that high intensity interval training as a non-invasive and non-drug method can have a positive effect on the decline of leptin and some overweight and obesity dependent factors.

Keywords
BMI, Fat Percentage, High Intensity Interval Training, Leptin, Obesity, Overweight

Corresponding Author: Email:mogharnasi@ped.usb.ac.ir, Tel: 09153412696
A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Menopause
Athletes in Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing
Sports

Seyedeh Elham Hosseini1 – Majid Kashef 2 – Manijeh Noroziyan3
1. M.Sc. of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran,2.
Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of
Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training

در این سایت فقط تکه هایی از این مطلب با شماره بندی انتهای صفحه درج می شود که ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل ورد به داخل سایت کلمات به هم بریزد یا شکل ها درج نشود

شما می توانید تکه های دیگری از این مطلب را با جستجو در همین سایت بخوانید

ولی برای دانلود فایل اصلی با فرمت ورد حاوی تمامی قسمت ها با منابع کامل

اینجا کلیک کنید

University, Tehran, Iran, 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise
Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi
University, Tehran, Iran
(Received: 2013/8/11,Accepted: 2013/12/3)

Abstract
The present casual-comparative study was carried out with the aim of comparing bone mineral density (BMD) in menopause women who were professionals in weight- bearing and non-weight-bearing sports in the past. The statistical sample consisted of 20 menopause athletes who were purposefully selected and assigned to two groups of weight- bearing and non-weight-bearing. Weight-bearing group (handball and basketball, n=10, mean age 54.50 ± 2.7 years, height 163.60 ± 4.69 cm, weight 70.50 ± 9.02 kg) and the non-weight-bearing group (swimming, n=10, mean age 54.80 ± 1.54 years, height 159 ± 5.29 cm, weight 64.55 ± 4.10 kg). The BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and the data were analyzed by independent t test and analysis of covariance. The results showed a significant difference in BMD of femur neck, L2-L4 lumbar and total hip (P≤0.001) and femur trochanter (P≤0.05) between the two groups. The BMD of the weight-bearing group in femur neck, L2-L4 lumbar, total hip and femur trochanter was higher than that of the non-weight-bearing group. Also, there was a significant difference in BMC of weight-bearing group in femur neck, femur trochanter (P≤0.001) and total hip (P≤0.05) compared with the non-weight-bearing group. The BMC of the weight- bearing group in femur neck, femur trochanter and total hip was higher than that of the non-weight-bearing group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in other areas. According to these results, it can be concluded that weight-bearing sports which have high levels of mechanical stress in comparison with non-weight-bearing sports which have lower levels of mechanical stress increase BMD and BMC levels more in women in their middle age and menopause period. It is suggested that they should perform weight-bearing sports and inland sports as well.

Keywords bone mineral content, bone mineral density, menopause women, non-
weight-bearing, weight-bearing.

Corresponding Author: Email:Ehosseini128@gmail.com, Tel: 09364730352
The Effect of 6 Weeks of Endurance Training on the Levels of Some Tumor Micro-environmental Cytokines in Female Mice with Breast Cancer
Hamid Agha-Alinejad1 – Mohammad Amin Saei2- Mahdi
Mahdavi3 – Sadegh Amani Shalamzari4 – Abdolreza Kazemi5 – Marjan Pirayesh6
1.Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Tarbiat Modares University,
Tehran, Iran 2-MSc of Exercise Physiology, Tarbiat Modares University,
Tehran, Iran 3- PhD of Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran,
Iran 4- PhD of Exercise Physiology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran,
Iran 5- PhD of Exercise Physiology, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan,
Rafsanjan, Iran 6- MSc of Exercise Physiology, Islamic Azad University of
Kerman, Science and Research Branch, Kerman, Iran
(Received: 2013/7/9,Accepted: 2013/12/30)

Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sport training on cytokine balance in female mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 20 female Balb/C mice were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. After orientation to the environment, cancer cells were injected and experimental group performed the endurance training 5 days a week for 6 weeks with moderate intensity. Mice were daily evaluated the changes in tumor growth. Finally, the mice were sacrificed; tumor tissue was removed and immediately frozen and kept in -70°C. Tumor sample was homogenized and levels of IL-17 and IFN- were measured using ELISA. Independent t test was used to determine the difference between the groups. There was a significant decrease of IL-17 in the experimental group compared with the control group (P=0.03). Also, levels of IFN-γ increased, but it was not significant. Tumor growth significantly reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group (P=0.005). As IL-17 was involved in angiogenesis, growth and metastasis of tumor, decreased levels of this cytokine along with reduced tumor volume showed that training reduced tumor growth through decreasing the levels of this cytokine. Also, an increase in the level of IFN-γ showed a cytokine balance by training in tumor micro-environment to induce anti-tumor cell-mediated immunity which showed the protective role of training in provoking anti-tumor immunity. It can be concluded that endurance training played an effective role in the inhibition of tumor growth in estrogen-receptor dependent cancers.

Keywords
breast cancer, endurance training, IFN-γ, IL-17.


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