< 7 %< 2 < <2 (<& – 052 B 19 3 + 2 2 ; , <2 < M – 3P<M 4 <M G % : , 3 P 2 +P0&
0<52 4 <5 1N . < <> 4<? +P 7 E (5 $ & < W d<7 E (<5 = -3 2 45 67 B505H e f8 . +P c[ ]C?
g, <& T 3 <2 – @ < %< 2 , + O A3 Q3 2 – @ T 3 %0& . aH 3 2 . +P0& 7
!
, P<M2 – @ < T 3 %0<0. ; P<5 <XS R M<7 C5
.3 %< <. <2 + <5h 3P5< – < 2 D C<y %0< 8 -2 D
<57 ; <N <7 -3 <2 V&<X 9 3 [z] 3 1& +3R 2
.P<& < %7 <M G – <GD – <9 +P<BB. ’ F . 2 D 3
; 0 & &W % S5S67 3 %9 [0,W 4M G . -: 2
<7 %<B <XS R – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ .P9 %
57 ; N – GD 7 2 . P&> /5 & 3 P& D 3 57
. % {OK ; Bb 9 T 3 %00. ; P5 XS R T 3 – < D 3 <57 -<2 +P< U B < – < M G =
+P< <7 – @ %2 2 ;6 d7 +P 7
%<G8 5h – 9 =52 N – 73 O7 = > q& 2 – GD _ <D <j ; <. <qB 3 – @ < %< 2 – 9 3 D 3 57 4 <M G | < & +3 <R <2 .P<& +P< + d(2 %& 5H – @
@ < %<2 < %<G8 5h -3 2 %S5S67 3 – q&
<2 A,@ – < =5<Bb 9 .P& +P c – GD +P 7
<9 +PBB. ’ M2 =55M7 3 E (5 = % 2 3 3 2
, 3P<6 – 1<N %<S5S67 P< = PBl .P& +P B05H – GD < &W < R 3 P& + P / +P0& 7 – @ % 2 – 9
=5< W %& < 3 % SR g P M %9 [0 ,W | & F . 2 .< +P< C<? K ; <B5 : ;W , 3 B. %SS =52 – 9 &
’<r 3 -<M2 -(& 2 – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ a}
-3 <2 %G8 5h -S5S67 3 P& +P r P = 2 oS ’
%& N ; X 55 7 – 2 -5B6B =5Bb 9 .P& > 4? &W
3 – <q& 4 M G |& L& .P& +P c S5S67 |& 3P
%<S5S67 | < & 2 +P c – d7 q & C2 D -5] .P& + P (
“# ” @ 6?
< V % < & %<2 <5] <6 -2 . %3
CX< X – <9 +PBB. ’ 2 – GD +P 7 – @ %2
– 1<N %< 2 – < 3 / m 2 +P _ ’ & – <GD +P< 7 – @ % 2 +PB9 C5X07 oS ’ – <GD +P< < 7 – @ < % 2 ( ) CX .

!++9 “=* 6< ;, ) > ” ’ /
<2 %<2 – +, 9 +PBB. ’ P , 7
<9 +P<BB. ’< P<M7 CD P<K <2 +P0& 7 – @ T 3
< 3 V 1< <2 < =< . PB. +O – GD 4? 2
, % & 4 j V9 . + 9 2 – @ T 3 F5 @ PK % 2
<5 ] 3 %< q & % : , . % (5 ;W %S. V& .
– <GD – <9 +P<BB. ’ . 0 C5 2 E (5 %S. %& N
, +O < +3R2 . P2 2 15& ;W %G8 5h 3 V 1
<2 (< <N 38 < <B 19 V9 . nR 2 E (5 =
3< %< 3 P< 4? 2 +P 7 – @ %2
+O . P98 +9 2 15& 8 CK
9 +, , %wM2 %K: +P 7 – @ %2 ,
< 3 % MB<? – <9 +, < < 3<7 PBS2 – 9 +, C5D ,
<9 +, < -<2 + < 2 3 -<XS R -3P6 . %G
P& N3 – @ T 3 6O? , U 8 V& . 2 (& < <2 (<& =X N – 9 +, -, A3
<X& %<8 2 . < + x5N <7 +P0<& 7 – @ %2
& < W d<7 – @ %2 E (5 _ ’ & %[& [l %<2 C& H F ;. ’ %S. :2 .P& +P c [ ]C?
_ (<6 P< PN Q3 F< – <GD – <9+ P<BB. 7 d7
%8 2 vS? 4@ f7 ;. 7 Q3 = 3 % & , +O 2 3 [z] ;X 9 3 3 1& 4 M G 2MN 2
– @ < T 3 F5 < @ V& < . v<r 3P6 Cr O7 Q3
; <52 < , 4 <? 2 ; 7% CX X 4 ?2 +P ’ :.
K =11.9+10.1/ +10.9/2( )
( 2 3 = dbCX vr ( & 2 K vr
. – @ T 3 O7 d .- : 2 Vt T 3 %0<& . a<H %< 2 < 3 =5 ’7 qB 2
: % c e f8 = I5 67 B505H , – ?8 P 2 3 C< . %0<0. ; P<5 F< <2 =5< 3 – <2 [ ] B> 3
; <N <2 6O<? F % 2 3 6 – 2 8 BX V& . 5 ] . > /5 & 3 2 . 2 – D – 2 3 g, &
% <. +, P& 2 9 > . g, & % 5B5 W T 3 F % 2 [ ] S<< 2 . ( 5& T 3 % << & 5 ] << +P
-< R – 9 +PBB. ’ 2 D 3 57 -3 %2 4 0,W
<2 <. – q& P F H 2 &W (X 5M 3 A /& < %0<0. – <GD <R <& F< ;P< – N
T 3 <57 – 2 . 0 3 4 j , Q3 = . B05H <. P< +P9 0< . +P q& ? % 2 -3 5& C 67
%0<& . %< 2 VB<7 < q& <. <: ; 9 T 3 57 ; N VB7 , 7 C5 2 3 + . V& . 2 +P %B52 V5H F5 @
.< +P C? K % N 7 C2 D %0&. aH 3 ; N
5K& ;<. V& < . , a<H T 3 <. P<& ; 0<& | < &
– GD %00. wR 2 H 8 F PB&9 F5H $ @
E(5& X 2 C P7 C& H . P % T O7 % D3 (X 3 PB. % C R ; BR 67 ; B. E9 % H 8 XS R = . F5 H
[]X 3 % .. +P 8 B t%0 0. ; P 5
C<& H -3 % N7 C2 D 5j 7 2 % ’ . PB
<2 ” <7 %<28 E(5& X P& A & %S58 2 % D3 . -: 2
PB<2 -, % ’ – > . %&’ 9 S2
3 P& < %< </ C<& H <> < l F5H -SfO
-Sf<O , P<R 3 PB<2 < %G< % ’<b& Bl Q3 = . 2 4 5r .P9 % ; 0& %& N 2 67
: , P& 4 R 3 9 P& < – <B <2 % <. +, P<& <2 -, – & $ T <O7 < &W <7 – <9 <. – <: 2 3 % SR g P
4 <? <2 %0<0. ; P<5 <7 P<& ’< 3 A3 PB O5& .P2 Q (> – @ T 3 8 BX + < 4 <? <2 ;W -, – & 2 – @ T 3 f7 $
.
. =X D jW N C? , +O$
( ) <M CX<<2 s%<2 % < & < 3 v57 7 = P2 : % B05H
V = Vcr + +VtVst + Vsc + Vf( )
;W .
7 – @ T 3 F5@ V&. PK %2 3 : Vcr
– GD +P
T 3 %0 0. ; P 5 XS R , %& %2 3: Vt
@
%00. – GD – 9+ PBB. ’ , %& %2 3 : Vst
0 – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ , %& %2 3 : Vsc
; < <2 <57 f<7 . %7 ? _ D % 2 3 : Vf .P 2 vS?
1 N , A P . 9 2 E.K 4@M c 2
. %8H ( ) M
: %; 52 ( ) M 4? 2 Vcr
Vcr = crbt( )
7 T 3 % 2 F5 @ V& . %& 62 VB7 cr ;W . : [ ]P W% 2 , M , . +P
cr = K.22.D = 12(1K. 2.E2) bt 2 yw = yw ( ) b t

3

3

T 3 R b5(5@ 3P E %0 8 % ’ D ;W .
-<N P<K VB<7 yw; <H vr T 3 ’r t
.P& – @ T 3 F5@ V&. vr K 3 ;P
#

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اینجا کلیک کنید

V0. ; P5 -0B7 (_) V&. =5K 0B7 (o )

V&. , aH 0B7 (U)
A 19 ( ! A 19 B 3+ C &-+ ” D 6 ? ;,
& > 59 3 P& C5X07 C& H – 9 > F5H -SfO
C< R Q(<> j -, – wR : %X5H CfO
A15& <<X .P<< 5& <<N3 <<2 +P<<BB. H T 3 %0<<0. ; P<<5 m < <2 =5[B< – < 2 <2 – D 3 57 2 0 15& %[ ’5(>
. +P X 3 %. 4 M G
<2 _ < – <9 & =5<2 v5 3 , 2 /5 & 4 <M G 3 u,1<5 ; < E5S(<7 <5M , + O < 2 3 I d8 +P<B9 ; 0<& <. (s) < M [u] ; <X 9 3 % D –- ?
.P< W %< < <2 < – @ T 3 E5S(7 D3 d xx , yy, xy – 0B7 – 1N 3 5Mr3 ( ) CX
0<B7 – 1<N %B 1[ <N <2 .P<9 %< ; 0& K =
</&W , 3 < % C? K (t) M -, + 3 (s) M . P W % 2 (u) M , t – GD %00. VB7
( xxyy)2 + yy2 + xx2 + 6 xy222yw = 0(s)
3 cr2 + 3 crt sin2 + 2t2yw = 0(t)
100084-11492

3
t = 2 cr sin2 +(u)
[ – 7 3 3 C & H & 9 2 C 6 F5 H ; <X 9 3 3 1& < .[p] < > PB9 8 D C& H – 9 >
; <N %0<0. ; P5 C R -, ( P -2 %. Q3 , [z]
< K – 2 – GD – 9 +PBB. 7 2 +P ’ – D 3 57 C<5D , – [ ; 6 . P& . + O d % ’ 2 – 2
3< D 3 <57 %00. ; P5 C R 15& [s] ;X 9 37H
.P&. %2 &W (X -(5& X
P< F< M<7 <2 [s] ; 2<7 4 <M G =
@ < %<2 < %2 3 %2 , qB 2 %S5S67
<9 & P< 3 8 H B> 3 . H 2 g, & +P0& 7 – 9 & – F 4 ? 2 % 2 C& H 3 B05H _ v5 3 , [t] g@ . 3 S 57 .. P _ %00. %G8 Q3 = .( ) CX P& . ? Ec D 6 2 9 &
CAN/CSA [u] <& . 0. P& = /& d7 -, ( P
. +P ‘H 15&
_ <D – w<R I5 67 = – q& M G V’2 3 = ,
<7 P<& +P< < ’< %<. +, P<& <2 %&5H – @
😛 W %2 () M L&
1+
st =[

2t + 2t cos2( d)]
+ +[(1) cr cos2( d45)]ys
=[ t (1+cos (2d)sin (2d))
150884-268189

(1cos (2d) +sin2( d))]
+ +[(1) cr sin2 d]
=[ t cos (2d)t sin (2d)]
+ +[(1 ) cr sin2 d] st =+ +[(1t[1 (1)+cr sin2)sin2(d]d ys)] ( ) < M 4 <? 2 15& – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ – 0 VB7 : % – 5> /5 & 3 ? 8 (p)
sc = t[1(1+ )sin2( d + )]()
+ +[(1) cr sin2 d]crs
<GD +P<BB. ’< ;P< -N PK VB7 ys . -: 2
.P<& – GD – 9+PBB. ’ -0 V&. PK VB7 crs 3
<9 +P<BB. ’< -0< V& < . PK VB7 =5 ’7 e f8
1<5& %<G2 3 3 > 4? ;6 d7 %7 M G
’< , +O < C6 2N 7 2 @ %K: – 9 & =5 W
3S<2 <. – <B <2 crs </B .P<& +P c 9 +PBB.
%< (s) 4@ M F . 2 [z] ; X 9 3 3 1& 3 ; 5 7 .P W % 2 (z)
36881789643

1072905-3321

crs = ys2for 2 ()
25679482398

crs = ys (1 0.53( 0.45)1.36 ) for 0.45 < 2 (t) crs = ys for < 0.45(u)
: ;W .
614181-45205

= (b / ts s) 12(1 2)( ys / E)( 2kS) ( ) kS = (b / ls )2 +0.425( ) – <GD – 9+PBB. ’ j : l 3 ’r ts B H bs ;W . <9 +PBB. ’ %Mr V& . , – 5> SN – 2 +3 R2 .
B0<5H I<5 67 = +P C? K – PR C5S67 |& 2 N 7 2
– <GD – 9 +PBB. ’btss’r 2 B H (& . %
= 90( )
: 2 22 v5 ;W .
= tan 1

(z)
; <Ic <57 <G xG< Ab ; G xGAc ;W .
.P &: O7 hs 3& 9 : L ; %B
.P& +P c ( ) CX 4 f’0 <2 %0<0. ; P<5 C< R , %& Vt %2 3 a}
+P< + ; 0<& (_$ ) CX< <. xy %2 VB7 – B
: %C? K () M ,
Vt =

tbt sin 2()
Vsc 3 Vst – <GD – 9 +PBB. ’ , % & % 2 – 3 +P< </ – 6 – 93 5& I – – 9 f7 .
( ) 3 ( ) 4@ <M , v57 7 2 P& – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ : P& % /5 &
Vst = Asst cos d()
Vsc = Assc cos d())
– <GD +P<BB. ’< – 0 %00. G xG As ;W . .( ) CX< P<& %< 6 2 – GD – 9+PBB. ’ 3 , d 3
’ -0 -6 VB7 sc 3 %00. -6 VB7 st
; & <D m < 2 3 D jW N , + O 2 . P& – GD – 9 +PBB. V& < . P<K % 2 VB7 .PB W % 2 + C5S67 3 g 9
%0<0. ; P5 XS R , C? K %00. VB7 3 T 3 F5 @ .P<BB. %< < R – 0 %00. – 0B7 9 +PBB. ’ f<7 C<6 T 3 ;P< ’< <2 N 7 2 . 2 A,@ 15& t 3 cr – 0B7 g 9 ; & D I: T 3 2 9+ PBB. ’

</ T 3 t 3cr -0<B7 – 9 < <2 R 4N
’< <2 (<& 0B7 j -3, 2 N 7 2 3 = , .P& %
3 ( ) 3 (u) 3 ( ) 4@ <M , 3 t 3 cr =< 3 9 +PBB. VB<7 + F . 2 9+ PBB. ’ – 0B7 j C P7 3 < , 4@ <M , + O < <2 – GD – 9 +PBB. ’ %00.
#
6E
<7 < : F< – @ %2 – PR P = PBl
3 – <q& Q3 <7 P<& +P< <> <. 2 +P 7 3 +P0&
%<2 < %<2 < 3 =5< ’7 +P< c 4@M
. P<& 5> <D %2 , 3 %2 – GD +P 7 – @
=5<Bl %<G8 <5h – P<R C<K -2 . ANSYS 1 A & ,
+P< + O < C<5S67 3 -, (< P – <2 v B %Sc ( < <2 %9 [0< ,W – <9 + 2 – PR – P D .
3 < +P +P5/B 3 % 2 ; 6 %SD 4 M G , +P W C<2 D | < & 2 P& P& %9 [0 ,W – 9 + . % P – 2
– @ % 2 – 9 – 2 M – 9 & =5 W – B 2 q & D , 3 % 2 ; R M +P 7 3 +P0& 7
+P< C<? K ; B5 : +P + . %S @ 2 &W – <2 F57 B5< +P& < ’< %<G8 P<Bl P< , .
3 (p) -SX< I2 <G <& @ < %<G8 5h -, ( P
<731 ;W F5 < @ – < 5>k 3 3 < +P< + O ( ) +, < <2 +P& < < R – <9 2 <b& Bl . < +P<
<2 V& < . +P PH P& f7 – 6O? ;3 L . 4 ? 2 55 7 X&W [ P2 % & M 7 3 P % & T O7 – PR 4 ?
.P& R 5 3 & 4? 2 – 6O? , U8 -SX
| < & 3 ’< H ;W 4 j 3 5 3 & / + 6& r =< E<9 – < , 4 M G 3 – + (> n6 – +,
%< 2 – <9 – PR CK . > 4 ? e f8 . P& +P > . 2 ; 6 d 7 Q3 = PBl 15& – @
. +P + &W , – PM7 2 , %< & – <D <jW N , 5 3 – f & [ ] 3 3^
3 P<& 3W < 2 +PBB. H T 3 % 2 V& . = PBl <.<2 : – @ % 2 F 3P6 – 1N C5S67 C 5S67 5 3 – f & [ ] ; X 9 3 .P & 2
V& < . P< =5< 3 < H 2 ; %0,W && 3P6 – 1N
[] ;X 9 3 %& 2 . P&. R +PBB. H T 3 %2
V < ,W +P0& 7 – @ %2 : P F
< 7 – <2 AISC t [u] < & =5<cW <. ( ) < M 2
: 3P6 +P c %r R – 9 +PBB.
722381-3198

E
b / tss0.56() )
<2 <57 4@ f7 5S? 2 %& 5H -1S _ D % 2 3 + 4 ? 2 4@ f7 > – q& P , 3 %[ (2 ;
Vf vS ? 4@ f<7 -<2 3< Vf = 0 P& < <
C5X0<7 , %<& %[ ’5(<> A15& <X %<2 <5] ;7 %
F -2 . 3W _ (K 2 -, – wR F5H -SfO
<9 57 <XB < 2 – @ %2 : F ;8
P<BB. < %0<0. ; P<5 <7 P& %. % ’ 33
CX 9 57 XB – N 2, K 2 F5H -SfO
% D $-? PB W % P PH & =5 H 3 @ 2 & P& 5[2
(<X A15& <X =< -2 [ – , .[u] ;X 9 3
< S5S67 A </& 2 , 5& =X : PBl -2 D E. K
% K ;W 2 +3R .P2 Vf6 -2 z %G8 5h %X57
Sf O , -P M7 = X 1 5& : F _D
.[z] 5&3 2 3 =2 PB W N3 2 57 F5H
<. < + ; 0<& ; >P&[& 4 M G |& K = 2
<2 _ <D %2 5] +P 7 – @ %2 – 9
< F<1& &< – <5 8 C? O C5X07 |&
C<? O C5X0<7 < 2 Vf 3 = , .[] – SR – % : &
. %C? K () M , & – 5 8
Vf = 4Mpc / hs() )
<<2 A /&<< .<< ;<< F5 <<H ; << Mpc ;W <<.
( ) <<M () 3 (–) ( ) – <<9 <<M %B 1[ <<N
<. P< W %< 2 +P oM7 – 9H v(K 2 () M
+P< ’ – @ % 2 % & % 2 3 +PB9 ; 0& : ; 2 57 vS? 4@ f7 2 : F (CX X) – GD
V = crbt +

tbtsin2 + A (sst + sc)cos d
4Mpc()
+

hs
%< 2 <5 ] 0<& < R E (<5 – <5 3 & & > F<l . – < 5 <N <2 N < <2 C5S67 d 7 +P C? K
< <2 C<5S67 | < & <2 (<& %) 3PK 7 =X
<2 |& K = .P9 ; 0& V 1 12 -5 N 2 N
+O 4? =2 B2 .P& F1& T 3 C. E5S(7 5]
<N 7 2 vB 5 3 -f & R 2 ( 2 %3 Q3 ,
< <2 | < & % & – SX 55 7 3 %0& . – 9 2 – <2 3 Q3 3 =< , . T E (5 %MD 3 – 5 ]
. 2 E (5 % 2 5 ] =5 ’7 5 3 | & 2 = . 5& E [ H 2 %B r CK Q3 ,Q3 3 9
<2 F5 <H %<9 > < l ; < 3 +P +O zg
< -, (< P -2 Shell 181 + > 9 -,W N V
.< +P< > . 2 – @ %2 – 1N A7 -PM2
< & 2 4 ? 3 2 – ‘> 2 SK 9 %& , – 9 +, 2 =5<5M7 $_ F<57 7 Q3 $o< : P<& o M7 C2 D ANSYS
=5<2 %& < , – <9 +, <2 , L< h /B .+’ %&, +, 2
+P< + O % [ 9 CX0 2 Sh – 2 / p 7 / P<K 3 F , aH % & 2 2 ;P5 > . %BM = P2 .
<2 <SK p <7 =52 3 | P7 2 2 P O52 T O7 %& , 3 <M2 <2 % < & <2 <. % </&W , .< %< R E (5
| < & <2 %<S5S67 | < & 6<? %[ (<2 f & 5MD
<& & <qB =5< 9 <2 .P<& +P< +P5/B M %9 [0 ,W 3 C<2 <. , < /p m <5 – . SPSW2 %0 ,W g P< <N 4 R : = > . 2 2 [p3 p] ; X 9
x f< <& & =< .( ) CX< +P _ ’ & : 2
– @ < +P<BB. <H T 3 3 %& <5H _ <D -& %f
-, < – < & E5S(<7 P<K VB7 . -:2 .P& +2 43 O
< +PBB. H T 3 E5S(7 PK VB7 3XH [ z
%<G8 P<Bl – < 5B6B (p) CX< .P& +P qB XH [
C<K . 2 – 9H 3 %f – 9 @ V& .$VB7
<. < %< <qK .P<9 %< ; 0& SPSW2 P – PR

[?H H] SPSW2 3- (F G! 6 E ;,
V& < . – 9 m2 5 3 -f & =5Bb 9 &W P&.
– 1<N P< C<5S67 mm <B y. P<K 2 %2
. P&2 . 2 ;W 3P6
: +P > . 2 C5S67 Q3 3 M G = A </& +, < +k< 3 < V& . C5S67 F 3 Q3 a}< P<& +P< C<? K %0& . – 9 – SX 3 +P
< H <2 C<5& 3 -, < 5< – <2 %< B 5 3 – SX 55 7 <2 ‘<> %G8 5h C5S67 3 +P R +, % K %0& .
A /& 8 BX – ‘> 2 67 Fl . -& X 55 7
Q3 <2 5 3 6 , %G8 5h – ‘> C5S67 . +P
<[ & 4<j . 43 O7 = 2 %G8 5h %X57 C5S67
.P& R C2 D %S5S67 Q3 = %& , – 5> 2 s 3P6 – 1N % PB9 %G8 5h C5S67 A3 Q3
67 t, -& X 55 7 2 ‘ > C 5S67 F.
%<& 4<j =2 B2 . > 4? 8BX -‘>2
|& – @ – wR %Mr V&. 3 %G8 5h V&. ,


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